How Charitable Contributions Can Affect Your Income Taxes
Giving is a good thing. Charitable contributions can also help reduce your income tax obligation.
If you regularly file a Schedule A, you know that most of the deductions you record there benefit you and your family, as well as lowering your tax bill. Home mortgage interest means you have a place to live. Medical and dental expenses? You have health care. The real estate taxes you pay come back to you in terms of local resources.
But that Gifts to Charity section? That’s often about other individuals who don’t have those things. Thanks to U.S. tax law, you can help other people and the organizations that serve them while getting a bit of a break yourself.
As with any other type of tax-related deduction, the IRS has rules that spell out what kinds of charitable contributions can be claimed and what proof you may be asked to provide. And like most of the tax code, these regulations are complex; some have exceptions.
We’re getting close to that final quarter of the year, which is when many people make extra donations in addition to those they’ve made throughout the year. So here’s some of what you need to know.
First, let’s look at the IRS’ definition of a charitable contribution: “…a donation or gift to, or for the use of, a qualified organization. It is voluntary and is made without getting, or expecting to get, anything of equal value.”
How do you know whether an organization is qualified to receive tax-deductible donations? Some are obvious, like churches, the American Red Cross, and the Girl Scouts of America. Many fundraisers include this information when they ask for money. You can also use this IRS tool to find out.
What Contributions Can You Deduct?
Money is, of course, deductible, but so is property. The IRS allows you to deduct the fair market value of anything you donate, which is the price that a willing buyer and willing seller would agree on in the open market. Most often, this is clothing and household items like furniture, electronics, and appliances, and it’s usually much less than you paid for it. For example, you might use the cost that a thrift store would charge for an item of clothing.
What about more expensive items like jewelry and gems, paintings, property, etc.? Depending on the item’s value, you may need to get a written appraisal from a qualified, reputable source. The general rule is that you don’t need to get an appraisal for items worth $5,000 or less. But there are exceptions. If you’re planning to make a donation that runs into the thousands of dollars, we’ll be happy to help determine what’s needed for your tax return.
Are There Limits to How Much You Can Deduct for Charitable Contributions?
Yes. You can only take deductions for contributions that add up to less than 50 percent of your adjusted gross income for the tax year. But then there’s the 30 Percent Limit and the 20 Percent Limit. Here again, if you’re making substantial contributions to a charitable organization, let us work with you.
What Records Do You Need to Maintain?
Depends. Did you make the donation using cash, credit card, payroll deduction, etc.? If it was less than $250, documentation like cancelled checks or credit card statements will suffice. More than that, and you’ll need a written acknowledgement of your contribution or specific payroll deduction records.
Was it a noncash contribution? Was it worth less than $250? You’ll still need a receipt or a letter from the organization that received it unless, for example, you dropped some bags of clothing off at a site where no one was present. You also need to maintain written records that contain detailed information about the donation. There are additional requirements for contributions of between $250-500 and $500-5,000, and more than $5,000.
What about out-of-pocket expenses, like using your own vehicle as a part of providing services to a qualified organization? Some of those expenses are deductible (gas and oil) while others aren’t (repair, maintenance, etc.). You can also just deduct a flat 14 cents per mile rather than reporting actual expenses.
There are other rules—and other exceptions—that apply to the income tax status of your charitable contributions. Bottom line: Keep thorough records for anything you donate to an organization. And let’s start a conversation if you’re planning to make considerable contributions this year – before the tax year ends.